Saturday, March 23, 2019

Online boat test review and quick answers

rear of a boat

rotates and powers a boat forward and backward

metal fitting in which a rope can be fastened

right side of a boat

upper edge of a boat's side

body of a boat

front of a boat

left side of a boat

all-round white light
navigation light located on the stern of the boat

red and green sidelights
port and starboard lights located at the bow of the boat

maximum width of a boat

distance from water to lowest point of the boat where water could come on board

depth of water needed to float the boat

main centerline (backbone) of the boat or the extension of the hull that increases stability in the water

displacement hulls
boats that move through the water by pushing the water aside and are designed to cut through the water with very little propulsion ex: sailboats

planing hulls
Boats that are designed to rise up and glide on top of the water when enough power is supplied; these boats may operate like displacement hulls when at rest or at slow speeds but climb towards the surface of the water as they move faster ex: PWCs

flat bottom hull
this is an example of a planing hull; it has a shallow draft which is good for fishing in small lakes and rivers, however it rides roughly in choppy waters

deep vee hull
this is an example of a planing hull; it gives a smooth ride in rougher waters however it takes more power to move and it may roll or bank in sharp turns

round bottom hull
this is an example of a displacement hull; moves easily through the water but usually rolls unless it has a deep keel

multi hull
this is an example of a displacement hull; has greater stability because if it's wide beam however it needs a wider area while turning

length overall
length of the hull excluding any of the

steering device, usually a vertical blade attached to a post at or bear the stern of the boat

length class A
less than 16 feet

length class 1
16 feet to less than 26 feet

length class 2
26 feet to less than 40 feet

length class 3
40 feet to less than 65 feet

outboard engine
is a portable, self-contained package of an engine, gear case, and propeller that is attached to the transom of a boat; Steering of outboard boats is controlled by a tiller or steering wheel that swivels the entire engine to direct propeller thrust.

vertical surface at the back of a hull

lever used to turn the rudder of a boat

inboard engine
are mounted inside the hull's midsection or in front of the transom

stern drives
aka inboard/outboard engine

jet drives
use an engine to power a strong water pump, which sucks up water and then forces the water out the back to thrust the boat forward; also may power larger vessels (jet boats) and are used commonly for vessels designed for shallow water conditions; jet boats can have inboard or outboard jet drives.

personal watercraft (PWC)
a small vessel that uses an inboard jet drive as its primary source of propulsion and is designed to be operated by a person or persons sitting, standing, or kneeling on the vessel rather than inside the vessel; the U.S. Coast Guard includes personal watercraft in the group of inboard vessels less than 16 feet in length; they are subject to all of the same laws and requirements of any other vessel plus a few laws specific to them; you need engine power in order to steer or control it; example: jet ski

before going out on a PWC
•read and understand the owners manual
•take time to watch the DVD or video most PWC manufacturers provide
•inspect your PWC periodically and give it necessary maintenance to keep it in good operating condition
•be aware to all local, state and federal laws that apply; each state has specific laws such as a minimum operating age, permitted hours to operate the PWC, equipment requirements, etc.
•in addition to obeying all boating laws, the PWC operator must obey the laws specific to PWCs

PWC fuel selector switch
the "on" position should be used when the PWC is underway; the "off" position should be used when the PWC is turned off; the "reserve" position should be used if you run out of fuel while underway; dont forget to switch back to the "on" position after refueling

ignition safety switch
most PWCs have one; this is a device that shuts the engine down if the operator is thrown off the PWC

courtesy on the water
don't get too close to other PWCs; don't spray other with the wake of your PWC; don't make excessive noise near residential or camping areas, particularly early in the morning

parts of a PWC
• starboard: right side
• port: left side
• fuel cap
• throttle lever
• steering control: means of controlling the steering nozzle
• safety lanyard: short cord for attaching the ignition safety switch to the operators wrist or life jacket

opening in the hull that draws water toward the impeller

intake grate
screening cover over the intake, which prevents large debris from entering

drive shaft
the long stem connection between the motor and the impeller

device used to pump and force water under pressure through a steering nozzle at the rear of the vessel

steering nozzle
device used for directing the stream of water to the left or right at the stern of the PWC, which steers the PWC

parts of a sailboat
• the hull carries the passengers and supports the rigging
• the rigging includes many parts of the sailboat, such as the lines (sheets and halyards), mainsail, headsail (jib), boom, and mast
• the keel/centerboard is attached to the bottom of the hull and keeps the boat from sliding sideways through the water
• the rudder is used to steer the sailboat, turned by a tiller or steering wheel

lines (ropes) used to raise and lower the sails

lines (ropes) used to control the angle of the sails to the wind

• A boat operator should never take a boat on the water with too many people or too much gear on board. Boats loaded beyond their capacity will swamp or capsize more easily and will be more difficult to control.
• Look for a capacity plate near the operator's position or on the transom of the boat. This plate indicates the maximum weight capacity and/or the maximum number of people that the boat can carry safely in good weather.
•You should not exceed either the stated maximum weight capacity or the maximum number of people.
• Maximum weight is the combined weight of passengers, gear, and motors.
• In many states, it is a violation to exceed capacity.
• Federal law requires single-hull boats less than 20 feet in length to have a capacity plate. (However, PWC and sailboat manufacturers are not required to attach a capacity plate.) Always follow the recommended capacity found in the owner's manual and on the manufacturer's warning decal. Never exceed these capacity recommendations.
• Remember ...
On outboard boats, the capacity plate also will display the recommended maximum horsepower rating of the boat. Your boat's motor should never exceed this rating.

calculating boat capacity
number of people= boat length(ft) times boat width(ft) divided by 15

before beginning to fuel the boat
• Tie the boat securely to the fuel dock.
• Ask all passengers to leave the boat and go onto the dock.
• Do not allow anyone in your group or others at the fuel dock to smoke or strike a match.
• Check to see that fuel lines, connections, and fuel vents are in good condition.
• Turn off anything that might cause a spark—engines, fans, or electrical equipment.
• Shut off all fuel valves and extinguish all open flames, such as galley stoves and pilot lights.
• Close all windows, ports, doors, and other openings to prevent fumes from entering the boat.
• Remove portable fuel tanks from the boat and fill them on the dock.
• Make sure that your fire extinguisher is within reach.

while filling the fuel tank
• Keep the nozzle of the fuel-pump hose in solid contact with the tank opening to prevent producing a static spark.
• Use caution and fill the tank slowly to avoid spilling fuel into the boat's bilge or into the water. •Use an oil-absorbent pad to catch drips or spills.
Never fill a tank to the brim—leave room for fuel to expand.

Interior of the hull below the floorboards; lowest part of a vessel's interior where the sides of the vessel curve in to form the bottom

after fueling the boat
• Put the fill cap on tightly to prevent vapors from escaping.
• Wipe up any spilled fuel and properly dispose of the used paper towels or rags on shore.
• Open all windows, ports, doors, and other openings.
• If your boat is equipped with a power ventilation system (exhaust blower), turn it on for at least four minutes before starting your engine. This will help eliminate fuel vapors in the bilge.
• Before starting the engine, sniff the bilge and engine compartment for fuel vapors. Continue ventilating until you cannot smell any fuel vapors. Consider installing a gas vapor detection and alarm device.
• Start the engine and then reload your passengers.
• Remember ...
Evaporating gasoline creates vapors or fumes that are heavier than air. These fumes settle to the bottom of the boat where they could explode if enclosed areas, such as the bilge, are not ventilated properly to remove fumes.

fueling a PWC
all of the same steps apply for fueling a PWC but always remember: DO NOT TIP THE PWC IN ORDER TO FILL IT ALL THE WAY UP. the tank is designed to leave space for the fuel to expand. if the tank is overfilled, the fuel may expand and spill into the water.

prevent running out of fuel
Make sure you have enough fuel before casting off. Operating at two-thirds throttle instead of full throttle will conserve fuel. The following rule will help prevent running out of fuel:

• One-third to get out
• One-third to get back
One-third in reserve for emergencies

choosing the right trailer/toeing vehicle
• Use the size of your vessel to determine the dimensions of the trailer needed. Today, most trailerable boats are sold as a package with a trailer of the appropriate size.
• Look at the load capacity of the trailer stated by the trailer's manufacturer. If the combined weight of your vessel and its engine is more than 90% of the recommended load capacity, buy the next larger trailer. This is because your gear (fuel, life jackets, anchors, lines, etc.) will increase the overall weight by at least 10%.
• Check the owner's manual of your towing vehicle to ensure that your vehicle is rated to tow the combined weight of your vessel, engine, and trailer.
• Remember ...
It is very important to have proper lighting on trailers, including turn signals and tail and brake lights. Also make sure you have a jack that fits properly under the trailer—most car jacks are too large to fit under a trailer.

towing hitch
• The coupler on a trailer connects to a ball hitch on the towing vehicle. A frame-mounted hitch on the towing vehicle is better than a bumper-mounted hitch. If you are using a bumper-mounted hitch, do not exceed the weight rating of the bumper.
• Make sure the size stamped on the ball hitch on the towing vehicle is the same size that is stamped on the trailer's coupler. If the ball hitch is too small, a bump in the road could cause the coupler to lift off the hitch.
• "Tongue weight" is the amount of the loaded trailer's weight that presses down on the towing hitch. The tongue weight should be about 10% of the combined weight of the vessel and trailer ("gross trailer weight" or GTW). If the tongue weight is too light, the trailer will tend to swing from side-to-side (or "fishtail"). If the tongue weight is too heavy, the rear wheels of the towing vehicle will be weighted down, making it difficult to steer.

trailer safety chains
Two strong safety chains should be crisscrossed to support the trailer's coupler if it becomes disconnected from the towing vehicle. The chains should be strong enough to hold the combined weight of the vessel, engine, and trailer.

before leaving home with your boat and trailer
Secure the vessel on the trailer and the gear within the vessel.

• Secure all gear in the vessel firmly to keep it from shifting. Arrange the gear so that its weight is balanced side-to-side and front-to-back.
• Secure the vessel to the trailer with several tie-down straps and/or safety lines to prevent the vessel from shifting. Use extra tie-down straps in case one fails. Never trust the bow winch alone to hold your vessel onto the trailer.
• Put the engine or drive unit in the raised position and secure it.
• Attach the safety chains between the trailer and the towing vehicle, crisscrossing them under the trailer tongue.
• Tighten lug nuts on trailer wheels before departing.
Inspect and maintain trailering equipment.
• Check the pressure of all tires on the towing vehicle and the trailer. Make sure you have a spare tire in good condition for both the vehicle and the trailer.
• Tighten the lug nuts/bolts on the wheels of both the towing vehicle and the trailer, and grease wheel bearings.
• Make sure that all lights and brakes on the towing vehicle and the trailer work properly.
• Examine tie-down straps, lines, winch, safety chains, and hitch for signs of wear. Replace or adjust as necessary.

on the road with a trailer
• Drive cautiously.
• Drive at moderate speeds and avoid sudden maneuvers.
• On long trips, pull over every hour or so to check the towing vehicle, trailer, tires, trailer coupling, and gear in the vessel.
• Allow for the added length and weight of the trailer.
• Make wider turns at corners and curves.
• Allow extra time and distance for stopping and for passing other vehicles. Steer wider on corners to clear curbs.

launching the boat from the trailer
• Prepare to launch well away from the boat ramp so that you don't block ramp traffic.
• Transfer all equipment and supplies to the vessel.
• Disconnect trailer lights from the towing vehicle.
• Remove all tie-down straps before backing down the ramp but leave the trailer winch line securely attached to the vessel.
• Make sure the vessel's drain plug is in place.
• Tie a rope to the vessel's bow to use to control the vessel if necessary during launching.

Backing the Trailer Into the Water During Launch
Back the trailered vessel into the water far enough so that the lower unit of the engine can be lowered and submerged while the vessel is still on the trailer.

• As an added precaution, always set the parking brake on the towing vehicle.
• Lower the engine or outdrive, and start the engine. If your vessel is still on the trailer and you have engine trouble, you can retrieve the vessel easily.
• Once the engine is warmed up, back the trailer further into the water until the vessel floats. Undo the winch line, put the vessel's engine in reverse, and back slowly off the trailer.
• Boater's Tip...
Novice boaters should practice towing, especially backing up, in an open field or empty parking lot before their initial launch and retrieval. This will give you a feel for the trailer and how it maneuvers in relation to the towing vehicle.

retrieving a boat into the trailer
• Back the trailer into the water so that approximately two-thirds of the rollers or bunks are submerged in the water. Set the parking brake of the towing vehicle, and put it in park (or first gear if you have a manual transmission).
• Move the vessel onto the trailer far enough to attach the winch line to the bow eye of the vessel. • Finish pulling the vessel onto the trailer by cranking the winch. Stay out of the way of the direct line of the winch cable in case it snaps or you lose control of the winch. Do not load a vessel using engine power because this can cause damage.
• Shut off the engine, and raise the engine or outdrive.
Pull the vessel out of the water.
• Remember ...
If launching or retrieving a sailboat with a raised mast, watch out for overhead wires.
• Prepare for the drive home well away from the boat ramp so that you don't block ramp traffic.
• While on land at the ramp area, remove and dispose of all weeds from the vessel and trailer, remove the drain plug to release bilge water, and drain any live wells. This will help prevent the spread of aquatic nuisance plants and animals.
• Secure the vessel on the trailer and the gear within the vessel.

do not power load your boat
Propeller wash can erode the sediment just beyond the ramp surface, creating a large hole. The eroded sediment is deposited behind the propeller, creating a mound. Trailer tires can get stuck in these holes, and boats can run aground on the mound.

courtesy on the boat ramp
• Boat ramp traffic jams can be prevented if everyone practices common courtesy at the ramp. Be sure you observe these simple courtesies.
• Prepare your vessel for launching or for the drive home well away from the ramp.
• Use at least two experienced people to launch and retrieve the vessel—one to drive the towing vehicle and one to operate the vessel.
• Never block a ramp with an unattended vessel or vehicle. Move the vessel away from the launch lane immediately after removing it from the trailer. Return briefly to pick up the vehicle driver once he or she has parked the vehicle and is back at the ramp.
• When retrieving, do not pull your vessel into a launch lane until the towing vehicle is at the ramp. The line is formed by vehicles with trailers, not by vessels in the water. Drop off the vehicle driver, and wait offshore and clear of the ramp until he or she arrives with the trailer.
• Boater's Tip...
Use at least two experienced people to launch and retrieve your vessel—one to drive the towing vehicle and one to operate the vessel. If launching and retrieving by yourself, it is recommended to place wheel chocks behind the wheels of the towing vehicle.

figure eight knot
has several uses, including connecting two ropes to make a longer line or making a "stopper" knot in a single line in order to prevent the line from slipping through a hole or a gap in a block or a cleat.

bowline knot
is a multi-purpose knot that is essential for boat operators to know. Forming the knot creates a fixed loop on the end of the rope or line—a loop that can be used for hitching, mooring, or lifting.

anchor bend knot
A type of hitching knot that is used to secure a rope to an anchor or a ring. If additional security is needed, a half hitch can be tied at the end.

cleating hitch
Used to attach a line to a cleat on a dock, the cleating hitch is formed by wrapping the line around the base of the cleat, then forming one or more figure eights around the cleat. The knot is secured with a half hitch.

clove hitch
is handy for temporary fastening, such as when tying up to a piling. It's particularly useful because—with experience—it can be tied with only one hand. For extra fastening power or for longer periods of time, add two half hitches after tying the clove hitch.

Round Turn and Two Half Hitches
Handy for tying down a bulky load or tying a boat to a mooring post, the round turn and two half hitches is versatile. It is a secure knot that does not jam and is easy to undo.

boat maintenance
• Examine the interior and exterior of the hull when it is out of the water.
• Check for oxidation, a common problem on aluminum hulls, that appears as white powder spots. Use fine sandpaper on oxidized areas until spots are replaced by bright shiny metal.
• To protect the environment, use only environmentally safe, non-phosphate detergents to remove oil and algae from fiberglass hulls. • Avoid abrasive materials, which can remove the shiny top layer (gel coat). • Patch holes immediately with a fiberglass patching compound.
• Check through-hull fittings to make sure they are not cracked or leaking.
• Remove all puddles from the interior before and after every outing.
• Store boats in a dry area out of the sun. If you must store the boat for a long period of time, place the trailer on blocks to preserve the tires. Keep the boat covered, leaving an opening to circulate air. Hang canoes upside down.
• Clean all lines (ropes). Dirt and sand cause deterioration. Keep lines out of the sun when not in use, and replace weakened or fraying lines.
• Clean sails with a soft brush. Examine them for small tears or open seams that can be repaired by taping or sewing.
• Refer to the owner's manual for a maintenance schedule.

engine maintenance
• Keep your engine clean and tuned properly. Refer to your owner's manual for a maintenance schedule.
• Check the oil and fluid levels before every outing. • Change the oil according to the owner's manual. As the engine ages, increase the frequency of oil changes. Clean oil extends engine life.
• Tighten battery connections. Clean battery terminals by disconnecting the terminals and removing corrosion with a wire brush. If the battery is weak when you start the engine, recharge it.
• Inspect the engine for anything that shows signs of wear or requires tightening, such as hoses, belts, and bolts. Make sure everything is fitted properly, including the engine cover.
• Never use automotive electrical parts. Use marine parts only. Use of automotive parts rather than sealed marine parts (such as alternators, starters, fuel pumps, and other electrical parts) could cause a spark that could ignite a fire.

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